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Excitatory amino acids neurotoxicity and diseases of the central nervous system
- Bogomoletz Institute of Physiology, NAS of Ukraine
4, Bogomolets Str., Kyiv, Ukraine, 01024
Excessive activation of excitatory amino acids (EAA) receptors leads to increased intraceltular Ca2+ followed by activation of protein kinases, phosplwlipases, proteases, nitric oxide synthase, Impaired mitochondria! function, the generation of free radical and alterations in gene expression. A transient intese influx of Ca2+ may lead to uncontrolled activation of one or more of these potentially lethal processes. Neuronal death subsequent to excessive excitatory amino acids EAA mediated excitation, often reffered to excitotoxicity, stand out as a critical factor common to a variety of neurological disorders range from acute insults, such as stroke, hypoglycemia, trauma and epilepsy, to chronic neurodegenerative states including AIDS-dementia complex, Huntington's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and Alzheimer's disease. Neurons may become more vulnerable to excitotoxic insult by excessive release or abnormal leakage of the neurotransmitter, impaired uptake, the possession of abnormal excitatory amino acid receptor subtypes, or if cellular energy metabolism is impaired.
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