Biopolym. Cell. 2002; 18(5):377-393.
Обзоры
Геномная изменчивость соматических клеток растений. 7. Изменчивость популяционно-генетических параметров в культуре in vitro
1Кунах В. А.
  1. Институт молекулярной биологии и генетики НАН Украины
    ул. Академика Заболотного, 150, Киев, Украина, 03680

Abstract

Сделан обзор данных, касающихся особенностей клеточных популяций, длительное время выращиваемых в условиях in vitro, как новой экспериментально созданной биологической системы. Рассмотрены формы отбора, действующие в клеточных популяциях. Выявлено суточную (циркадную) и пас­сажную ритмики изменений генетической структуры пролиферирующей составляющей популяций. Сделано заключение о том, что стабильная ритмика размножения клеток, разгра­ничения во времени деления клеток с разными геномами, динамическая стабильность генетической гетерогенности и особенно уникальная способность к воссозданию генетической структуры исходной гетерогенной популяции отдельными клетками при клонировании свидетельствуют о наявности высокоэффективного физиологического и генетического (популяционного) гомеостаза в клеточных популяциях in vitro. Высказано предположение, что одна отдельная клетка способ­на не только сохранять, но и в определенных условиях реали­зовать способность восстанавливать генетическое разнообра­зие данного вида, а, возможно, и рода растений. Рассмотрены также особенности фенотипической гетерогенности клеточ­ных популяций по количественным признакам, в частности, по уровню накопления вторичных соединений – алкалоидов и нафтохинонов и возможные пути определения наследуемости количественных признаков. Приведены данные по эффективно­ сти применения в клеточной селекции предложенных статистико-генетических методов для определения гетерогенно­сти, изменчивости, наследуемости и использования этих па­раметров для разработки оптимальных способов повышения продуктивности клеточных культур.

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