Biopolym. Cell. 2002; 18(5):377-393.
Genome variability in somatic plant cells. 7. Variability of population-genetic parameters in the culture in vitro
1Kunakh V. A.
  1. Institute of Molecular Biology and Genetics, NAS of Ukraine
    150, Akademika Zabolotnoho Str., Kyiv, Ukraine, 03680


The results concerning the peculiarities of cell populations maintained in vitro conditions for a long time as a novel experimentally developed biological system were reviewed. The selection forms operating in cell populations were discussed. The circadian and passage rhythm of changes in the genetic structure of the prolific component of the population was established. It was concluded that the stable rhythm of cell propagation, time-dependent pattern of division in cells with differing genomes, the dynamic stability of the genetic heterogeneity and especially the unique potential to restore the genetic structure of the initially heterogeneous population by individual cells upon cloning suggest the existence of the highly effective physiological and genetic homeostasis in the cell populations in vitro. It was speculated that a single cell was capable not only to retain, but under certain conditions, realize its potential to recover the genetic variety of the species involved and probably the plant genus as well. The features of phenotypic heterogeneity of the cell populations according to the quantitative characteristics, in particular, the level of the secondary alkaloid compounds and naphtoquinoine accumulation, and possible ways of estimating the quantitative traits heritability were also discussed. The usage of proposed statistical-genetic methods in the cell selection for evaluation of heterogeneity, variability, heritability is stated to be effective, these parameters being beneficial to optimize the ways for improvement of cell culture productivity.


[1] Kunakh VA. Genome variability in plant somatic cells. 4. Variability in the process of dedifferentiation and callus formation in vitro. Biopolym Cell. 1998; 14(4):298-319.
[2] Kunakh VA. Genome variability in plant somatic cells. 5. Growth and mitotic regime variations during adaptation to maintenance in vitro. Biopolym Cell. 1999; 15(5):343-359.
[3] Kunakh VA. Genome variability in the somatic plant cells. 6. Variability and selection in the course of adaptation to in vitro conditions. Biopolym Cell. 2000; 16(3):159-85.
[4] Mayr E. Animal species and evolution. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, 1963; 797 p
[5] Bakhtin YB. Genetic theory of cell populations. Leningrad, Nauka, 1980; 168 p.
[6] Glazko VI, Glazko GV. Russian-English-Ukrainian Dictionary of applied genetics, DNA technology and bioinformatics. K.: Nora-Pint, 2000. 462 p.
[7] Dobzhansky Th. Mendelian populations and their evolution. Genetics in 20t h century. New York: Acad, press, 1952:573-89.
[8] Vakhtin YB, Pinchuk VG, Schvemberger IN, Butenko ZA. Clonal-selectional concept of tumor growth Kiev: Naukova Dumka, 1987 216 p.
[9] Shvarts SS, Gurevitch ED, Ischenko VG, Sosin VF. The functional unity of the population. Zh Obshch Biol. 1972; 33(1):3—14.
[10] Pavlova MK. Obtaining unicellular clones of tobacco in tissue culture. Culture is isolated organs, tissues and cells of plants. M.: Nauka, 1970; 178-83.
[11] Kalinin FL, Sarnatskaya VV, Polishchuk VE. Tissue culture methods in physiology and biochemistry of plants. Kyiv: Naukova Dumka. 1980; 488 p.
[12] Sidorov VA. Plant Biotechnology. Cellular selection. Kiev: Naukova Dumka, 1990. 280 p.
[13] Tumanishvili GD. Prospects of research on the role of cell-cell interactions in the differentiation and growth. Cell-cell interactions in the differentiation and growth. M.: Nauka, 1970;7-23.
[14] Tumanishvili GD. On the "proliferating pool" conception. Tsitologiia. 1972; 14(7):821-9.
[15] Fadeeva TS, Irkaeva NM. Genetic mechanisms that determine the characteristics of polyploid cells, and evolutionary significance of polyploids. Theor. and Scient. probl. polyploidy. M.: Nauka, 1974;104-14.
[16] Demoise CF, Partanen CR. Effects of subculturing and physical condition of medium on the nuclear behavior of a plant tissue culture. Am J Bot. 1969;56(2):147-52.
[17] Shmal'gauzen II. Selected Works. Organism as a unit, individually and historical development. M.: Nauka, 1982; 384 p.
[18] Belyaev D. K. Destabilizing selection The development of the theory of evolution in the USSR: 1917–1970 Leningrad: Nauka, 1983:266-77.
[19] Kunakh VA. Cytogenetic behaviour of tissue culture of Haplopappus Culture of isolated organs, tissues and cells of plants M.: Nauka, 1970:155-8.
[20] Sidorenko PG, Kunakh VA. Character of caryotype variability in cell population of tissue culture of Haplopappus gracilis with long term passaging. Tsitol Genet. 1970; 4(3):235-41.
[21] Kunakh VA. Polyploidy in cell and tissue culture in vitro and its possible causes. In: Experimental polyploidy in crop plants. Ed Zosimovich VP. Kiev: Naukova Dumka, 1974:39-57.
[22] Georgievskiy AB. Discussion on neutral traits. History and theory of evolution. doctrines. L.: Nauka, 1974; 8590.
[23] Georgievskiy AB. Evolution adaptation. Historical and methodological research. L.: Nauka. 1989. 190 p.
[24] Toskyy VN. Genetics. Odessa: Astroprint, 1998. vol 1, 2.
[25] Emelyanov IG. Diversity and its role in the functional stability and evolution of ecosystems. K.: IPC Intern Solomon Univ. 1999; 168 p.
[26] Kunakh VA, Legeyda VS. Cytogenetic study of cytokinin independent strain of tobacco cell cultures. In: Experimental plant genetics. Ed Zosimovich VP. Kiev: Naukova Dumka, 1982:74-9.
[27] Kunakh VA, Alpatova LK. The dynamics of the mitotic activity of ploidy and dividing cells in tissue culture passage for the tobacco. In: Experimental plant genetics. Ed Zosimovich VP. Kiev: Naukova Dumka, 1982:79-89.
[28] Kunakh VA. Genome variability and accumulation of indoline alkaloids in Rauwolfia serpentina Benth. Cell culture. Biopolym Cell. 1994; 10(1):3-30.
[29] Kunakh VA, Kostenyuk IA, Vollosovich AG. An increase in the amount of nuclear DNA during biosynthesis of alkaloids in the culture of Rauwolfia serpentina Benth tissue. Doklady Akad Nauk Ukr SSR. Ser B. 1986; (7):62-5.
[30] Kallak KhI, Yaverkyulg LYa. Cytogenetic characterization of some strains of pea callus. Genetics of cereals and legumes. Orel, 1972. Iss. 44: 7-16.
[31] Gupta KS. Cytology of Fenugreek calli cultivated in vitro. Cytologia. 1973;38(3):437-47.
[32] Levenko BA. Cell culture In polyploidy studies. Theor. and Scient. probl. polyploidy. M.: Nauka, 1974;115-23.
[33] Vollosovich NE, Vollosovich AG, Kovaleva TA, Shamina ZB, Butenko RG. Tissue culture strains of Rauwolfia serpentina Benth. and their productivity. Rastitel’nyye resursy. 1976; 12(4): 578-83.
[34] Kunakh VA, Kaukhova IG, Alpatova LK, Vollosovich AG. Peculiarities of cell behaviour in tissue culture of Rauwolfia serpentina Benth. Tsitol Genet. 1982; 16(5):6-10.
[35] Binarov? P, Dole?el J. Alfalfa embryogenic cell suspension culture: growth and ploidy level stability. J Plant Physiol. 1988;133(5):561–6.
[36] Kunakh VA. Pecularities of mototc regime and growth of Haplopappus gracilis cells in the culture in vitro. Tsitol Genet. 1973;7(6):510-3.
[37] Vu Dyc Quang, Shamina ZV. Cytogenetic abalysis of clones from individual cells and protoplasts of maize. Tsitol Genet. 1985;19(1):26-32.
[38] Rokitskiy PF. Introduction to statistical genetics. Minsk: Vyeyshaya shkola, 1974; 448 p.
[39] Kunakh VA, Mozhilevskaya LP, Gubar' SI. Peculiarities of productivity and suspension clones Rauwolfia serpentina Rauwolfia serpentina Benth. in vitro. Biotekhnologiya. 2001; 4:9–21.
[40] Vakhtin YuB, Guzhova IV, Nikolaeva LA, Kunakh VA. Hetorogeneity of the tissues culture of Rauwolofia serpentina in respect to its ajmalin production. Tsitologiia. 1985;27(6):717-20.
[41] Shepelev VN, Vakhin YuB. Somaclonal variability of ajmaline content of the Rauwolfia serpentina tissue culture under various culture conditions. Tsitologiia. 1996;38(6):590-5.
[42] Nikolaeva LA, Vakhtin YuB, Guzhova IV, Smirnova II, Kunakh VA. Supporting selection in the tissue culture of Rauwolfia serpentina Benth. Doklady Akad Nauk Ukr SSR. Ser B. 1985; (7):73-5.
[43] Kunakh VA, Mozhilevskaya LP, Alpatova LK, Gubar SI. Resistance to 5-methyl tryptophan and accumulation of alkaloids in callus culture of Rauwolfia serpentina Rauwolfia serpentina Benth. Biotekhnologiya. 2001;3:3—10.
[44] Kunakh VA, Poronnik OO. Shikonin content heterogeneity and supporting selection in the Arnebia euchroma cell culture. Dopovidi Nats Akad Nauk Ukrainy. 2000; (7):191-5.
[45] Kunakh VA, Poronnyk OO, Zakhlenjuk OV, Adonin VI. New shikonin producing cell lines of Arnebia euchroma (Royle) Jonst. Obtaining and characteristics. Fiziologiia i biokhimiia kul'turnykh rasteniy. 1999; 31(3):208-13
[46] Poronnyk OA, Kunakh VA, Adonin VI. Shikonin accumulation and cytological peculiarities of highly productive Arnebia euchroma cell strain upon surface and submerged maintenance. Biopolym Cell. 1999; 15(6):501-9.
[47] Kunakh VA. Somaclonal variation in Rauwolfia. In: Biotechnol. in Agriculture and Forestry. Somaclonal variation in crop improvement. Ed. Y. P. S. Bajaj. Berlin, Heidelberg, New York: Springer, 1996; Vol. 36:315-32.
[48] Poronnyk OO, Mirjuta NYu, Adonin VI, Kunakh VA. Arnebia euchroma cell population dynamics upon submerged and surface maintenance in vitro. Fiziologiia i biokhimiia kul'turnykh rasteniy. 2000; 32(5):377-85.
[49] Kunakh VA. Features of structural mutagenesis in cultured plant cells populations. Uspekhi sovrem genetiki. Ed. NP. Dubinina. M.: Nauka, 1984; Iss 12:30-62.
[50] Kunakh VA. Genome variability of plant somatic cells. 1. Variability during ontogenesis. Biopolym Cell. 1994; 10(6):5-35.
[51] Kunakh VA. The evolution of plant genome in cell culture in vitro: characteristics, causes, mechanisms and consequences. Genetics and breeding in Ukraine at the Millennium. K: Logos, 2001; vol. 1:53-67.
[52] Spiridonova KV, Andreev IO, Solov'yan VT, Kunakh VA. Molecular biological characteristics of genomic rearrangements in Rauwolfia serpentina cells cultured in vitro. Genetics and breeding in Ukraine at the Millennium. K.: Logos, 2001; vol. 1: 422-7.