Biopolym. Cell. 2018; 34(2):97-106.
Genomics, Transcriptomics and Proteomics
Cytogenetic disorders in Triticum aestivum L. cells affected by radionu-clide contamination of water reservoirs in the alienation zone of Chornobyl NPP
1Yakymchuk R. A.
  1. Institute of Plant Physiology and Genetics, NAS of Ukraine
    31/17, Vasylkivska, Kyiv, Ukraine, 03022

Abstract

Aim. To study frequency and spectrum of chromosome aberrations in the cells of Triticum aestivum L. root meristem under a prolonged effect of radionuclide contamination of water reser-voirs in the near alienation zone of Chornobyl NPP (ChNPP). Methods. The seeds of two soft winter wheat varieties were treated with samples from water reservoirs in the alienation zone of Chornobyl NPP. Anatelophase analysis of chromosome aberrations in crushed cytological prepa-rations of apical meristem of primary rootlets was used. Results. Radionuclide contamination of water reservoirs in the near alienation zone of Chornobyl NPP causes an increase in the aberrant cell frequency and mitosis disorders by 1.6-4.2 times. The highest level of cytogenetic activity is typical for radionuclide contamination of reservoir-cooler of ChNPP, Semyhodskyi backwater, drainage-way № 3 of ChNPP and Lake Hlyboke. Their spectrum type is mostly represented by single and paired acentric fragments, bridges and lagging chromosomes. Conclusion. A prolonged effect of ionizing radiation of radionuclide contaminations of water reservoirs of the near alien-ation zone of ChNPP is characterized by a high cytogenetic activity. The correlation between the chromosome aberration level and the scope of specific radionuclide activity of water reservoirs was not found, which may prove the induction of cytogenetic disorders under the radiation effect in the low-rate range. The increased level of aneuploid cells and those with multiple chromosome aberrations confirms a genetic danger for the organisms in water reservoirs even with a low spe-cific activity of radionuclide contamination.
Keywords: Aberrations, cytogenetic disorders, radionuclide, low-rate radiation.

References

[1] Glazko TT, Grodzinskiĭ DM, Glazko VI. [Chronic low doze ionizing irradiation and polyfactors of adaptation]. Radiats Biol Radioecol. 2006;46(4):488-93. Russian.
[2] Morhun VV, Yakymchuk RA. Genetic consequences of the accident at Chornobyl NNP. Kyiv: Logos, 2010. 400 p.
[3] Ma TH, Cabrera GL, Owens E. Genotoxic agents detected by plant bioassays. Rev Environ Health. 2005;20(1):1-13.
[4] Shvets LS. Bioindication of the intensity of environmental pollution based on the fertility indicators of pollen grains of different plants. Achievements in biology and medicine. 2011; 17(1): 40–44.
[5] Holosha VI. Radiological condition of the areas which belong to the zone of radioactive contamination (district breakdown). Kyiv: VETA, 2008. 49 p.
[6] Gudkov DI, Kuz'menko MI, Kireev SI, Nazarov AB, Shevtsova NL, Dziubenko EV, Kaglian AE. [Radioecological problems of aquatic ecosystems of the Chernobyl exclusion zone]. Radiats Biol Radioecol. 2009;49(2):192-202. Russian.
[7] Belova NV, Verigin BV, Yemelianova NG. Radiobiological analysis of white carp Hypophthalmichtys molitrix in a reservoir-cooler of Chernobyl NPP in a post-accident period. Issues of ichthyology. 1993; 33(6): 814–28.
[8] Sazykina TG, Kryshev AI. EPIC database on the effects of chronic radiation in fish: Russian/FSU data. J Environ Radioact. 2003;68(1):65-87.
[9] Artiukhov VG, Kalaev VN. [The cytogenetic monitoring of the environmental conditions on the territories exposed by the radioactive contamination as a result of Chernobyl Nuclear Power Station accident (colony Urazovo Belgorod region as an example)]. Radiats Biol Radioecol. 2006;46(2):208-15. Russian.
[10] Filenko OF. Biological methods in the quality control over the environment. Devices and control systems. 2007; 6: 18–20.
[11] Dubinin NP, Kalchenko VA. Mutagenesis and radiation levels in the habitat of populations. News from AS of the USSR. Moscow: Nauka, 1980: 3–44.
[12] Ofitserov MV, Igonina EV. [Genetic consequences of irradiation in a scots pine Pinus sylvestris L. population]. Genetika. 2009;45(2):209-14. Russian.
[13] Ramzaev V, Bøtter-Jensen L, Thomsen KJ, Andersson KG, Murray AS. An assessment of cumulative external doses from Chernobyl fallout for a forested area in Russia using the optically stimulated luminescence from quartz inclusions in bricks. J Environ Radioact. 2008;99(7):1154-64.
[14] DSTU ISO 5667-6-2001. Water quality. Sampling. Part 6. Instructions how to take samples in the ri-vers and other watercourses. Kyiv, 2002. 11 p.
[15] DSTU ISO 5667-4-2003. Water quality. Sampling. Part 4. Instruction how to take samples in natural and artificial lakes. Kyiv, 2003. 11 p.
[16] Pausheva ZP. Workshops in plant cytology. Moscow: Agropromizdat, 1988. 271 p.
[17] Lakin GF. Biometrics. Moscow: Vysshaia shkola, 1990. 349 p.
[18] Shevchenko VV, Grinikh LI. [Cytogenetic effects in native populations of Crepis tectorum exposed to chronic irradiation in the vicinity of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Station. Induction of chromosome aberrations during the first 2 years following the accident]. Radiobiologiia. 1990;30(6):728-34. Russian.
[19] Geras'kin SA, Fesenko SV, Aleksakhin RM. [The effects of non-human species irradiation after the Chernobyl nuclear accident]. Radiats Biol Radioecol. 2006;46(2):178-88. Review. Russian.
[20] Shmakova NL, Fadeeva TA, Nasonova EA, Krasavin EA, Rzianina AV. [Cytogenetic effects of low doses of radiation in mammalian cells: analysis of the hypersensitivity phenomenon and induced resistance]. Radiats Biol Radioecol. 2002;42(3):245-50. Russian.
[21] Geraskin SA, Dikareva NS, Udalova AA, Vasiliev DV, Volkova PYu. After-effects of chronic radiation of pine long after the accident at Chernobyl NPP. Ecology. 2016; 1: 30–43.
[22] Geras'kin SA, Mozolin EM, Dikarev VG, Udalova AA, Dikareva NS, Spiridonov SI, Teten'kin VL. [Cytogenetic effects in Koeleria gracilis Pers. populations from the Semipalatinsk proving ground]. Radiats Biol Radioecol. 2009;49(2):147-57. Russian.
[23] Parshad R, Sanford KK. Radiation-induced chromatid breaks and deficient DNA repair in cancer predisposition. Crit Rev Oncol Hematol. 2001;37(2):87-96.
[24] Liman R, Akyil D, Eren Y, Konuk M. Testing of the mutagenicity and genotoxicity of metolcarb by using both Ames/Salmonella and Allium test. Chemosphere. 2010;80(9):1056-61.
[25] Geras'kin S, Oudalova A, Michalik B, Dikareva N, Dikarev V. Geno-toxicity assay of sediment and water samples from the Upper Silesia post-mining areas, Poland by means of Allium-test. Chemosphere. 2011;83(8):1133-46.
[26] Medvedieva MYu, Bolsunovskiy AYa. Spectrum of chromosome aberrations in root meristem of E. canadensis from the areas of the Yenisei River with different types of technogenic pollution. Ecological genetics. 2016; 14(2): 57–65.
[27] Sycheva LP, Zhurkov VS, Rakhmanin IuA. [Actual problems of genetic toxicology]. Genetika. 2013;49(3):293-302.
[28] Kovaleva VI, Bagatskaia NV. [Cytogenetic effects in peripheral blood lymphocytes in the offspring of Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident liquidators under the influence of mitomycin C in vitro and folic acid in vivo]. Tsitol Genet. 2013;47(1):68-73.
[29] Kutsokon' NK, Bezrukov VF, Lazarenko LM, Rashydov NM, Hrodzyns'kyĭ DM. [The number of aberrations in aberrant cells as a parameter of chromosomal instability. 1. Characterization of dose dependency]. Tsitol Genet. 2003;37(4):20-5.