Biopolym. Cell. 2014; 30(6):413-425.
Обзоры
Нуклеосомная упаковка эукариотической ДНК и регуляция транскрипции
1Голов А. К., 1, 2Разин С. В., 1Гаврилов А. А.
  1. Институт биологии гена РАН
    ул. Вавилова 34/5, Москва, Российская Федерация, 119334
  2. Московский государственный университет имени М. В. Ломоносова
    Ленинские горы, 1/12, Москва, Российская Федерация, 119991

Abstract

Ядра эукариотических клеток содержат геномную ДНК, линейные размеры которой в десятки тысяч раз превышают их диаметр. Во многом такая высокая степень компактизации обеспечивается упаковкой ДНК в хроматин, ключевым этапом которой является наматывание ДНК на нуклеосомные глобулы. Октамер гистонов, составляющих нуклеосомную глобулу, взаимодействует с ДНК посредством электростатических контактов. ДНК-гистоновые взаимодействия достаточно прочны и затрудняют доступ к нуклеосомной ДНК многих ферментов и транскрипционных факторов. В то же время наличие нуклеосом не препятствует прохождению транскрипции и других процессов, связанных с реализацией генетических функций ДНК. В настоящем обзоре рассмотрены структура и многообразие нуклеосом и их центральная роль в регуляции транскрипции. Особое внимание уделено значению межнуклеосомных взаимодействий в обеспечении доступности генома для транскрипционной машинерии и регулируемому удалению нуклеосом с регуляторных элементов и транскрипционных единиц в процессе элонгации транскрипции.
Keywords: хроматин, модификации гистонов, нуклеосома, транскрипция

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